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交易的真相——资金管理与风险控制 [复制链接]

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发表于 2012-1-1 10:24:21 |显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 悟道 于 2012-9-25 09:48 编辑

交易资金管理之一:《基本风险控制》
在市场中交易,可能再没有什么因素会比风险控制更为重要了。一个交易者,可以没有一个产生正期望收益的行情判断体系,也可以没有好的交易策略,但绝不可以没有一个基本的风险控制方案。因为资金是一个交易者在市场中的生命,而风险控制所要解决的是如何保护生命,如何降低市场风险和不利的交易结果对资金所带来的冲击的问题。风险控制水平的高低直接决定着一个交易者的市场生命会持续多久。
    风险控制的方法有很多,最常见的就是通过控制单笔交易亏损比例的风险百分比模式,这个风险控制模式是我从新手开始一直沿用至今的风险控制方法,在亏损的道路上我曾经大受其益。新人时所采用的思路和技术策略很少能够经的起时间检验而遗留到现在,风险百分比的风险控制模式算一个。
    风险百分比是通过控制总资金的一个固定比例作为单笔交易允许的最大亏损来进行风险控制的。例如一个2%的风险控制比例,总资金为20万,则单笔交易允许的最大亏损为4000(200000×2%),如果产生亏损,则以剩余资金的2%作为下一笔交易的允许最大亏损,为(200000-4000)×2%=3920。在确定了单笔交易允许的亏损金额后就可以根据止损幅度来计算仓位的大小。例如以大豆100点的止损为例,则开仓量为4000÷1000=4手。这是一个反等价鞅策略的风险控制模式,仓位会随着资金的增长而增加,反之会随资金的亏损而降低,但承担的风险是恒定的。这对于亏损的控制和利润的扩展来说是一个几近完美的方案,可以最大限度的限制亏损的速度并在安全的范围内逐渐扩大头寸来扩展利润。这可能也是大家最熟悉最惯用的风险控制方式,但关键的一个问题是这个比例应该怎样设定才是合理的,是10%还是1%,多大的比例才是和自己的行情判断体系相适应的。
    我们都知道这样的道理:资金亏损20%则需要剩余资金盈利25%才可以恢复原来的资金规模,如果亏损50%则需要剩余资金盈利100%才可以恢复亏损前的资金规模。那么毫无疑问亏损的幅度越大,恢复到初始资金规模的可能性就越小,难度也就越大。资金向上的利润空间是无限的,向下亏损的空间却是有限的,触底出局的可能性也就越大。当然结论就是:必须避免资金的深幅回折。
    这里需要提到的一个重要概念就是最大资金回折比,也就是资金曲线从任意位置下降直到触底回升之间所产生的最大亏损幅度与回折前资金规模的比值。很明显设定最大资金回折比会有效控制资金产生深幅亏损。那么这个最大资金回折比是20%还是50%更合适,当然设定的比值越小资金越安全,相对利润也越小,资金曲线的波动越平缓。反之可能产生的利润越大,资金所承受的风险也越大,资金曲线的波动也越剧烈。
    这个比值可以根据个人的风险承受力来确定,但需要注意的一点是任何现实风险都可能会远远超过预先的估计或对历史数据的测试结论,设定这个比值仅仅是最大限度的保护资金安全,但无法保证实际交易产生的资金连续亏损不会超过预先的设定值。那么设定一个50%的或更大的资金回折比是不合适的,我个人的观点是33%可能是个上限,这也意味着需要用剩余资金盈利50%才能恢复初始资金规模。一些朋友可能对50%的盈利很不屑,或许认为获取100%的盈利也并不困难,所以可以采用50%作为最大资金回折比。我想这些朋友的操作水平是我远远无法企及的,那么使用50%作为自己的最大资金回折比或许也是合适的,但需要明确的一点是自己是否真正具备稳定获取一年一倍利润的能力,所依据的也应该是过去自己长期的历史操作记录而不是一相情愿的臆想。
    在连续亏损已经超出一个20%的最大资金回折比时资金仍然亏损有限,有很大的回旋余地。但一个50%的预定回折一旦被超出就几乎没有什么回旋的空间,必须承担更大的风险才能恢复初始资金,如果情况继续不利,那么结果就只是最后一搏之后的一无所有了。重仓操作最容易造成资金的大起大落,看似可以产生暴利,但其背后的风险却是巨大的。这一点,市场老手是很有共识的。
     如果确定了自己可以承受的最大风险,那么确定在单笔交易当中究竟使用多大的风险百分比就简单多了。首先需要知道自己的交易类型可以产生多高的交易成功率,是70%还是30%。假定交易盈亏的出现是完全随机的(关于这个问题我一直在思考,但无法证明交易中盈利和亏损出现是否是完全随机的还是呈现出某种规律性特征的,这里暂且以完全随机来对待,有研究结果的朋友不妨谈一下自己的观点),那么可以通过数学计算或干脆进行抛硬币实验来验证在某个样本范围内所可能遇到的最大连续亏损次数,我们知道样本越大,则可能遇到的连续亏损次数也就越大,可以选择500次也可以选择1000次来作为样本的大小,总之样本越大越好。
     如果计算结果是最大亏损为10次连续亏损,而自己可以承受的最大资金回折是20%,那么适合自己的风险百分比就是20%÷10=2%(当然以2%的风险百分比连续亏损10次的结果并不是20%,这里使用算术平均只是为了便于说明)。一个高成功率的系统所产生的最大连续亏损次数会大大低于低成功率的系统,因此高成功率的交易类型相对于低成功率的交易类型在实际风险相同的前提下完全可以采用更高的风险百分比。因此硬性的规定一个风险百分比是不合理的。
      
     我所提供的仅仅是如何进行一个关于确定自己风险控制方案的一套思路,和从前的理念性文章不同的是本文完全以思路,方法,技术为主。我所提出的这套方法并不算严谨,但却可以提供一个基本的风险控制方案。最重要的是对运用资金时在各个环节所可能产生的风险有一个大致的了解。对于风险的认识不够在散户中是很普遍的,也许很多朋友对这篇文章根本就看不下去,如果真的对自己进行一个对比,自己的资金运用方式可能极度危险的,或者自己本来就没有任何风险控制方式。如果心里只是在盘算着一年翻个几倍,那么脑子里是没有什么风险意识的,我这篇文章可能也有些没必要,疑问可能是:难道真的需要保持那样低的风险水平吗?如果目标是第一篇文章所提出的长期生存,那么完全有这个必要。当然我想另外的一些朋友是心领而神会的。
    这篇文章如果被理解了,就可以明白风险控制实际是很简单的。我个人也仅仅在使用一个简单的风险百分比的风险控制模式和一个简单的行情判断体系来进行交易,无论是资金运用还是行情判断都没有任何复杂的成分在其中。交易方法由繁到简的过程实际是思路由混沌到清晰的过程,而简单的方法也意味着更高的可靠性和更强的适应性。复杂的思路和技术往往代表了思路的模糊与被优化过的交易方法,是经不起推敲的。
   最后我只想说风险控制无论对于新手还是老手来说都是在市场生存的第一要素,市场中所暗藏的风险并不是那么显而易见的,而暴利却刚好相反,最好理智不会被欲望所代替。




交易资金管理之二:《确定利润目标》
关于利润目标,这是一个非常敏感且存在着巨大分歧的话题,也是一个投资人必须首要去解决的一个问题,这个问题上的模糊与错误,会直接导致投资失利。本文亦是将确定利润目标作为资金管理的重要前提论述开去。

       关于这个分歧,在老手和新手之间最为明显。新手通常相信在市场中可以获取巨额利润,无论这个利润是年收益是3倍,10倍还是几十倍,老手则大多对这样的想法嗤之以鼻,而更现实的认为市场中最重要的是生存,其次才是利润的大小。无论这个利润是70%还是20%。但很有意思的是这种矛盾又会在新手变为老手时(假如有机会成为老手的话)形成统一。记忆中关于期市最搞笑的一句话是:我们来期市是来赚大钱的,不是来要饭的。这句话非常形象的表达出了这种暴利心态。

        在这个市场中充满了太多的暴利神话,例如某某人曾经在三个月将资金翻了10倍,某某人一年中从1万做到了几十万。这些神话吸引着无数对风险陌生却勇敢非常的投资者前仆后继。所以说是神话并非说不存在这样的事实,相反或许读到这篇帖子的您就有这样的经历,但问题是这样的暴利一直维持下去了还是昙花一现呢。市场中的确存在非常高水平的短线操作者,且多以日内交易的超短线投资类型为主,在克服强大的成本压力后使资金以另人咋舌的速度增长,且可以呈现出一定程度的稳定性,他们同样也是暴利神话的制造者,更成为无数投资者效仿的对象,在我看来他们的确存在着某种天赋,但问题是在一个成功者的背后究竟有多少失败者,相信数量同样是让人咋舌的。另一个问题是这种高速的资金增长会一直持续下去吗?

       市场中利润与风险的辨证关系决定了在利润增加的时候风险亦在同步增加,且没有任何策略可以颠覆这一关系。相比较以趋势跟踪为主的长线交易类型而言这种高成功率,大仓位,超短持仓周期的交易模式所创造的利润是长线交易远远无法企及的。反过来说长线交易的安全性,稳定性亦是短线交易所不具备的,暴仓亦是短线重仓这种投资类型专用词汇,而你想要找到一个具备基本风险控制技术的长线投资人且暴仓出局的例子则是在大海捞针。

       这时就产生出两个问题:
       一是进入期市是希望长期生存且不断从市场获取利润(无论这个利润是多大)还是希望豪赌一把,或许从此“一步登天”,或许一无所有,相信没有人愿意选择后者。但偏偏在投资过程中却选择了后者的操作方式,概因将“一步登天”做为目标的缘故。
   
       二是在跨入期市这个大门时对自己的定位是将自己定位在一个普通投资人的角色上还是认为自己必然是市场天才,毫无疑问,我们每个人都将自己或多或少的定位在后者,否则根本没有勇气进入这个行业。

       这两个问题共同作用的结果是认为自己是百中挑一的市场天才,且可以通过自己的聪明才智实现自己资金的高速增长,从此加入成功者的行列,但既然是百中挑一,那么成功机会就是只有百分之一,百分之九十九的情况下投资者会以各种亏损速度迅速淡出市场,“一将功成万骨枯”正是一个形象的写照。一个对投资目标的错误定位加一个对自身的错误定位直接派生出错误的利润目标,错误的勇气,错误的理念,错误的操作,最后相加,结果是正确的出局。

       市场中最难的不是在短期内将资金翻个几十倍,如果有足够的胆量又有足够的运气这不是个问题。当然最好不要做这样的尝试,绝大多数时候结果是快速离开市场而不是高速获利,这和摸彩没有差异,完全依靠运气。而少数运气极佳者一旦中彩,又会将功劳归于自己的技术和天赋,并开始大做富豪梦。运气其实是整个随机序列当中最有利于你的连续获胜的那一小段,当运气消失时结果就是吃进多少就得吐出多少,而资金是有限的,顺便老本也就很容易的吐出来了,短暂的投资生涯也就就此结束了。这就是不做风险控制,只想获取暴利的合理结果。

       市场中最难的是长期获胜,这其中有三个条件是必备的:

优良的行情判断体系(保证在多次交易之后利润为正),合理的资金管理体系(保证风险足够低以承受由必然产生的连续亏损所造成的最大资金回折),交易策略(保证系统与投资人性格相符合以使即定交易计划得以顺利实施)。这三个条件正是系统的三个主要组成部分。可以清晰的看到这三个条件中不包括产生暴利所依赖的运气因素,运气在其中所产生的作用微乎其微。从这个比较就可以清楚的看到长期获胜的难度远远高过短期暴利,谋求暴利等同于让自己更快速的离开市场。而想要长期在市场中获胜所需要付出的是艰苦的努力,需要面对的是无法数清的失败,需要具备的是百折不挠的精神,需要做的是不断的自我剖析和反省,成功的投资之路实际是一个不断克服心理障碍的过程,直到找到真正的自我。

       假如长期获胜成为必需,那么就只有将风险降至足够低才能实现长期生存及长期获取利润的目标。很明显:首要的是生存,其次才是利润的大小。如果理解了利润与风险之间的关系,如果将风险大幅降低,那么利润亦会同步大幅下降。但无论降至多么低都是必须接受的,很多人看不起30%这样的利润,如果曾经了解几何增值的概念且不至于太过贪婪,那么30%的利润并非是一个太低的利润。

       成功投资之路远比想象更为漫长和艰难,关于究竟应该确定一个怎样的利润目标,本文并没有明确说明,事实上也没有办法证明怎样的利润目标才适合你自己的投资类型,文章仍然以理念形式展开,相信在结尾处您已经可以知道自己在市场中应有的预期了。

       送给每一位读到此帖的朋友们一句个人关于确定利润目标的心得:风险与利润共存,恐惧与贪婪同在。如果任意放纵内心的贪婪,那么由于贪婪所带来的巨大恐惧感将让情绪战胜理性而使你去做所有错误的事情,当你有幸享受短暂的巨额利润之时,你应该清醒的明白风险已经大到了足够吞噬你全部资金的地步。反之如果你努力去控制内心的贪欲,你可以发现恐惧会随着贪婪一并消失,情绪对你的影响将降至最低,理性将指挥你去实践自己的构想,承担应有的风险并获取应得的利润将使交易成为生活中的乐趣




交易资金管理之三:《正确利润扩展》
由于风险与利润的矛盾关系,利润扩展最大的制约因素就是风险,要进行利润扩展就必须先明确风险。所以本文将以对风险的解析作为起点论述开去。
    作为投资主体的交易者与作为投资对象的市场是交易的两个基本因素。而风险也就主要由交易者的心理风险与市场风险构成(风险的构成是呈现多样性的,且大多数是人为风险)。心理风险可以理解为由于错误的心理压力所导致的无法正常执行计划的风险。而市场风险可以理解为由于价格的极端移动所带来的风险。可以肯定无论是什么样的交易类型,这两种风险都会随同仓位的增大而同步增加。
    日内交易和趋势交易在持仓周期上分别处于两个极端,而两种投资类型均有各自回避风险的原则:趋势交易通常是以小仓位,宽止损来回避心理风险及由价格极端移动所带来的市场风险。而日内交易则以极短的持仓时间来释放由重仓所带来的心理风险及极端价格移动所可能造成的致命损失。
   仅就单笔交易的平均利润而言,趋势交易具备完全确定的优势。但是一个事实是一个优秀的日内交易者在资金量偏小的情况下在单位时间内所创造的利润会远远高过一个优秀的趋势交易者(如果资金处于一个足够大的规模时情况刚好相反,日内交易由于其交易特性当资金达到一定规模时只能进行算术增值而无法象趋势交易类型一样持续进行几何增值),产生这样巨大反差的原因就是扩展利润最重要的一个因素:机会因素。
   日内交易相比趋势交易,在交易机会上具备绝对优势。如果能将这种优势充分发挥并克服随机因素及交易成本,那么在风险增加有限的情况下可以创造出极高的利润水平。而机会因素的缺乏正是趋势交易所固有的缺点,只有扩展机会因素才能在风险增加有限的前提下进行交易利润的扩展。可以这样来理解:正确的利润扩展也就是正确的机会因素扩展。
   趋势交易进行机会因素的扩展主要通过两种方式来进行:一为通过加码的方式在单一市场增加机会因素,二为通过组合多市场交易来实现。增加机会因素有一个重要的原则就是保证机会因素之间为非相关。因为如果在同一时间持有具有相关性的两个仓位则实际风险为2倍额定风险。在日内交易类型中,两笔交易一般为先后进行,因此机会之间是的,非相关的。而趋势交易增加机会因素的两种方式则都存在相关性的问题。
     
   金字塔加码方式将所有仓位当做一个整体的仓位来看待,而这里则将每一笔加码都视为的交易分别对待且每笔交易使用相同的风险控制。这样加码就可以看作是在趋势中增加了机会因素。通常来说加码的距离越近则在趋势充分延伸后仓位所产生的利润越大,反之则越小。所以有朋友提倡近距离加码的方式。的确如果趋势真正展开,那么利润会非常大的。但如果从机会因素的角度来看则纯粹是一种掩耳盗铃的方式。由于存在上面所提到的两种类型的风险,如果加码距离太近,就会产生和重仓无异的心理风险,同时无法抵抗价格极端移动所带来的市场风险。很显然,两笔交易之间距离越近,相关性越强。如果产生价格的大幅逆头寸方向移动,则两笔交易可能同时亏损,加码只是起到了反作用。实际上,近距离加码的方式是以增加整体风险为代价来增加利润的,与其这样还不如直接增加风险百分比的方式更为直接。扩展利润不能以增加整体风险为代价,这是一个基本原则,错误的利润扩展方式是需要回避的。
   
    要保证加码的两笔交易之间的相关性足够小就必须保持一个足够大的加码距离,而加码所带来的利润也会相应下降,很多朋友都太过看重加码所产生的利润,并将加码的技巧看的很神秘。其实如果从机会因素的角度来分析,加码并不象想象中的那样神奇而只是可以增加有限的交易利润。所以我不赞成非趋势交易类型的中短线交易者使用加码的方式,太近的距离会导致两种风险的增加。如果一定想要一个“满意”的利润水平,直接重仓效果可能还更好一些。所以安全加码的一个关键不是使用金字塔式还是倒金字塔式的区别,而是要在两笔交易之间保持一个足够大的距离,否则即使是金字塔式加码也会给资金带来巨大的风险。
   
   对于趋势交易类型来说,扩展利润最重要的一个方式是组合多个市场来增加机会因素。我个人由于从短线交易中走来,固有的思维方式,错误的利润目标与对风险的肤浅认识使我很长时间以来都忽略了组合投资而仅仅进行单一市场交易并对组合投资抱有种种误解,只是随着对风险认识的不断深入,利润目标的一再缩水才开始转向自己从未涉及的这个领域。我个人不搞学术研究,所有的观点和结论均以现实交易为前提。
   组合投资可以理解为通过组合多个市场同时进行交易以充分利用资金并降低交易的时间成本,也可以简单的理解为通过在多个市场中交易以增加单位时间内的机会因素。同样的,选择市场组合的一个基本原则是市场间为非相关。
   在交易方法确定的前提下,在单笔交易中如果可承受风险为确定,那么通常利润也是确定的,如果要进行单笔交易利润的扩展,就会面临风险与利润同步增加的烦恼,我个人曾经做过很多策略上的尝试来扩展单笔交易利润,很遗憾,所有看似低风险的策略都无法经得起时间的检验,悉数失败。
   趋势交易由于捕捉的是整轮趋势,而一个品种每年只会产生平均1-2轮趋势,所以在单笔交易风险确定的前提下在单个市场整年可获取的交易利润也是基本确定的,而以组合投资的方式来进行机会因素的扩展实际上相当于增加非相关的市场来使总体利润在风险恒定的情况下成倍增加(假定组合中的市场波动水平相当,那么如果在单一市场可以获取10%的利润,在10个市场中交易就可以获取100%的利润),那么是否可以说如果无限增加市场的数量就可以使利润在风险有限的前提下无限增长,显然答案为否。这里忽略了一点就是保证金对资金的占用,越低的保证金比率可以使组合的市场更多。从这一点来说,外汇保证金交易在利润的获取上具有更大的优势。
   组合投资不单有扩展利润的作用,另一个重要作用是回避风险。组合投资回避风险的作用通常被解释为将资金分散在多个市场来化解风险,一句俗话是“将鸡蛋放在多个篮子里”。其实这个道理和机会因素的解释是相同的,只是不同的视角,横看成岭侧成峰的结果。本文对组合投资回避风险作用主要从组合投资回避心理风险作用的角度进行论述。
   组合投资仅仅是增加了的交易机会,并无法使资金曲线更为平缓(如果以分散的角度来解释则结论可能不同),也无法使最大连续亏损减少。其对心理风险的回避是最主要的。趋势交易的一个特征是一笔交易的盈利持仓周期通常在2-6个月之间,而如果在足够多的非相关市场中交易,那么由于趋势或者说利润并不会同时产生,就会产生一个现象:在全年的任何一天可能都会有一笔有盈利的持仓(理想状况)。
   我们大都有这样的体验,在连续亏损多次后执行计划会产生犹豫,比较困难。而在加码时刚好相反,执行计划很容易。这其中的一个区别就是加码时已经有一笔仓位产生利润,即使加码亏损也不会使本金损失,因此心态比较好。而由于连续亏损所损失的是本金就会造成患得患失的心理,害怕资金无休止的亏损下去,进而产生心理风险无法正常执行指令,丢掉可以产生大利润的交易机会损失就可以用巨大来形容了。
   组合投资对心理风险的回避正是基于这个道理。交易中必然会产生连续亏损,但如果在亏损的同时在另一个市场中有一笔交易是盈利的,且知道只要结束盈利仓位就可以抵消连续亏损所造成的本金损失,那么这种患得患失的心理就会大幅度减轻。由于恐惧所产生的干扰指令正常执行的心理风险也就由此得到了缓解。心理风险并不容易被人所认识,而多数人都用控制心态来形容对心理风险的控制,实际上如果交易当中存在着这种控制,那就说明自己在承受着相当大的心理风险,控制本身就是徒劳的,回避心理风险只能通过策略和降低预期来实现。
   如果在任何一个交易日都可能有一笔盈利的仓位,那么只要提高风险百分比不是可以创造更高的利润水平吗?答案同样是否。在多市场交易所带来的一个风险是,最大连续亏损可能集中发生在很短的时间段内,而此时可能并没有一笔盈利的持仓。也就是说,实际交易中有盈利持仓的时间段之间是会存在断层的。资金所承受的实际风险(最大资金回折)并没有降低,心理风险可以最大可能的回避却不会消失,我也只是假定理想的情况来说明观点。
   另一个问题是多市场交易中如果资金被充分占用,那么这不就和满仓相同了吗?如果从机会因素的相关性来考虑,那么这和在单一市场满仓是存在本质区别的。关于组合投资,在实际交易中问题还有很多,限于篇幅也只能提及到这些。
   
   假如理解了这篇文章,那么你会发现这可能是另一篇“交易的真相”。安全利润扩展的一个关键是机会因素。必须明确一个原则:风险一旦被确定,单笔交易利润是有限的,正确扩展利润唯一的途径是发掘机会因素,并保证机会因素之间为非相关。如果逆反这个原则在单笔交易中扩展利润,或发掘具备相关性的机会因素,那么在利润增加的同时风险也会同步增加,这就明确的否定了重仓交易,它的错误在于努力去扩展单笔交易利润,自然相应风险也同时被放大了。频密加码的错误则在于机会因素之间存在相关性。
   还清楚的记得自己第一次看到期货图表时,兴奋丈量着图上的高低点并计算着自己的资金满仓一年中可以翻多少倍。这样的情形相信大家也会有同感。而现在的眼睛里却是除了风险还是风险,这三篇文章中出现频率最高的词可能就是“风险”了。很多朋友都执著于寻求利润的最大化,我几乎可以肯定这些朋友大多数都是新手或者理论家。原因仅仅是因为如果抛开基本风险控制和正确的利润扩展原则去追求利润的最大化,被市场淘汰是很快的。其实无论是现实生活中还是在市场交易,我们都被无形的客观规律所左右而无法超越规律本身,我们所能做的就是认识规律并遵循规律。开始从风险的角度来审视利润应该是个不错的开端。

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To begin, double-click the MIDI to AAC Converter shortcut on the Desktop. Low Tech, I am sorry to need to disagree with you, but you could have definitely not used the iTunes convert performance to convert MIDI recordsdata to different formats. You're simply confused on this level, as iTunes has never, ever, supported MIDI files.
A number of products have been developed that let you sing or play a single non-MIDI instrument, decide the notes you performed, and write them to a MIDI file or control another instrument. The catch right here, in fact, is that these merchandise can only convert songs containing a single instrument or played monophonically - one observe at a time. That is positive when you sing solo or play a solo on an instrument akin to a flute or horn.
I am attempting to transform some midi files so I can file them on CD. (My source is ) However after I drag they do not present up within the library. The iTunes set up web page says to entry the Set Up Assistant to mechanically convert my Windows Media information (the place I additionally had the midi information as playlists) when putting in however I might never discover the Assistant. I have tried moving the playlist information using Windows and it appears they are in the iTunes library file, however they do not show up in the library at iTunes. If you will help I might recognize step-by-step directions. My display name says all of it. Thanks for your help.
Many (particularly moveable) gamers solely assist LC (at the moment) so you possibly can have recordsdata which might be valid however your participant won't play them. Merge Wma music information online free Web site: on-line wma merger share girl wmamerger page Briefly, Free MP4 to MP3 Converter is an easy-to-use application that enables you to convert any MP4 file to MP3 format with just some clicks.
It's a simple-to-use tool for converting MIDI file to MP3 format. Now, you possibly can enter specific output choices for the midi files. Select a file name and then on the proper hand side, specify the artist identify, title, album, yr, style, soundfont and different options.
You possibly can obtain the 10.3 version of iTunes which acknowledges Midi information and convert them to AAC since iTunes 10.5 will not recognize midi recordsdata. If for some purpose dragging the file does not work, proper-click on it in iTunes, and choose Show in Finder. This may show you a Finder window for the folder that accommodates each your recordsdata (e.g., the WAVE and the AAC).
Drummers too. IntelliScore Ensemble can convert percussion to a multi-drum MIDI file. Transforms music into its musical notation to convert Audio to polyphonic MIDI. Enter metadata, such because the song title and composer, into your file. To do this, choose your new AAC file in iTunes, and select Edit > Get Information. Fill out a minimum of the music title and artist fields.
You could add a LAME encoder for aac output, set up Soundflower and declare it because the enter for Audacity. You may improve the quantity all through the track, utilizing Audacity's results menu, after which save IT. Once performed, using the Sound preferences of the machine, switch again to the inbuilt speakers and you'll listen to a version with greater volume, which is playable in iTunes 10.5.
MIDI truly consists of three distinctly completely different parts - the physical connector, the message format, and the storage format. The physical connector connects and transports information between devices; the message format (considered midi to aac converter online to be crucial a part of MIDI) controls the stored data and the connected devices; and the storage format shops all the data and information.
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is an industry-customary protocol outlined in 1982 that permits electronic musical instruments corresponding to keyboard controllers, computer systems, and different electronic gear to speak, control, and synchronize with one another. MIDI permits computers, synthesizers, MIDI controllers, sound playing cards, samplers and drum machines to manage one another, and to change system knowledge midi to aac converter (acting as a uncooked information encapsulation method for sysex instructions). MIDI doesn't transmit an audio signal or media. It transmits "occasion messages" such because the pitch and depth of musical notes to play, management alerts for parameters resembling volume, vibrato and panning, cues, and clock alerts to set the tempo. As an digital protocol, it's notable for its widespread adoption all through the industry.
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prernirets ·±нУЪ 2020-3-6 18:12
To begin, double-click the MIDI to AAC Converter shortcut on the Desktop. Low Tech, I am sorry to ne ...

Free Audio Converter from DVDVideoSoft allows you to convert audio information to different output formats as a way to play them via various devices and packages. AAC and MP3 are both lossy audio compression formats. AAC is the default format used by iTunes. It produces better audio high quality than MP3 for a given information rate (e.g., 128 kbps) and is playable in almost all software that may play MP3 recordsdata.
Your app most likely saves in either it is personal format or as a Basic MIDI file, which is readable by any sequencing app. The Common MIDI format includes the specification that all GM modules map the same instrument (sound) to the identical location. Thus, a observe on command to patch #1 will play an acoustic grand piano be aware on any synth.
VS1053 is a versatile"MP3 decoder chip" belonging to VLSI Solution's extensive slave audio processor family. Along with having the ability to decode all the most typical audio codecs - including the superior options of newer AAC files - performance of this IC will be vastly expanded just by loading a bit of additional software program to its RAM memory. Along with having the ability to decode all major audio codecs, VS1053 is able to recording in three totally different audio codecs, from lossless 16-bit PCM to extremely compressed, but high-quality Ogg Vorbis files. For the most effective headphone listening experience the VS1053 contains EarSpeaker spatial processing which precisely simulates how a room with stereo loudspeakers would sound. This option can naturally be turnedoff when required. All in all, VS1053 is a straightforward-to-use, powerful workhorse for audio playback and recording functions.
Compose MIDI music simply by singing or playing any instrument. Select the File > Convert > Create AAC Model menu command. Release your audio information ! Zamzar now has the ability to convert MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) recordsdata into a wide range of of other audio formats, together with MP3, AAC, WAV, FLAC and extra.
It's a straightforward-to-use instrument for converting MIDI file to MP3 format. Now, you may enter specific output choices for the midi recordsdata. Choose a file title after which on the fitting hand facet, specify the artist name, title, album, year, genre, soundfont and other choices.
You may download the 10.three version of iTunes which recognizes Midi recordsdata and convert them to AAC since iTunes 10.5 is not going to acknowledge midi files. If for some purpose dragging the file doesn't work, proper-click on on it in iTunes, and choose Show in Finder. This will show you a Finder window for the folder that incorporates each your information (e.g., the WAVE and the AAC).
Our Free online audio converter help you convert your audio MIDI extension file to AAC format easy and fast simply Upload your MIDI file and then select AAC from conversion listing, after the conversion is accomplished you'll be able to obtain the transformed audio file instantly or by electronic mail.
A MIDI file may be very small, usually as small as 10 KB for a 1-minute playback (awav file of the same period requires 5 to 10 MB of disk space). It's because it would not comprise audio waves like audio file formats do, however directions on the right way to recreate the music. Another benefit of the file containing instructions is that it is quite straightforward to vary the efficiency by altering, including or removing a number of of the instructions - like note, pitch, tempo, and so forth - thus creating a completely new efficiency. This is the principle reason for the file to be extraordinarily widespread in creating, studying, and enjoying music.
VS1053 is a versatile"MP3 decoder chip" belonging to VLSI Answer's intensive slave audio processor family. Along with with the ability to decode all the commonest audio codecs - together with the advanced features of newer AAC recordsdata - performance of this IC may be drastically expanded simply by loading a bit of extra software to its RAM reminiscence. Along with being able to decode all major audio formats midi to aac converter online, VS1053 is able to recording in three different audio formats, from lossless 16-bit PCM to extremely compressed, but high-high quality Ogg Vorbis recordsdata. For the very best headphone listening expertise the VS1053 includes EarSpeaker spatial processing which accurately simulates how a room with stereo loudspeakers would sound. This option can naturally be turnedoff when required. All in all, VS1053 is a straightforward-to-use, highly effective workhorse for audio playback and recording purposes.
Polyphonic Edition: All the good features of the Ensemble Edition, except it is limited to converting single-instrument WAVE and different audio recordsdata to MIDI, played polyphonically or monophonically and without midi to aac converter percussion. This discount priced version is ideal when you work with single-instrument music.
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Changing Mp3, AAC T

Audio Converter digunakan untuk mengkonversi jenis file audio (seperti MP3, WAV, WMA, dll) ke jenis lain dari file audio. The record_ogg example sketch demonstrates a powerful function of the VS1053 breakout: Plug-ins. OGG recording functionality is not supported natively in the chip itself, but by way of a plug-in code module. A binary file containing the code picture of the plug-in is loaded from the SD card at startup. As soon as loaded, the VS1053 becomes an OGG recording machine.
It is advisable to use MP3 Toolkit to convert audio for cellular gadgets, make ringtones, repair tag information, rip Audio CD, report sound or merge audio gadgets to a whole MP3 file. Free Merge MP3 is a handy audio merging instrument that may simply combine, merge or be part of MP3 information into one MP3 file to let you've the power to handle your separated MP3 musical recordsdata larger. Make Preparation: Free obtain and arrange this extremely effective Audio Joiner in your Mac or Windows, after which follow the step by step data to combine audio recordsdata inside minutes. Nothing might be of as high stage as MP3 Cutter and Joiner that helps break and merge MP3 and WAV information very quickly. Audio Merger : MP3 Joiner App is Merger Few Songs or Ringtones and Share it along along with your Beloved Once.
Polyphonic Version: All the nice features of the Ensemble Edition, besides it is restricted to converting single-instrument WAVE and other audio recordsdata to MIDI, played polyphonically or monophonically and with out percussion. This discount priced edition is ideal in the event you work with single-instrument music.
Sometimes MIDI files use the MID file extension - These information are exactly the same format as a MIDI file however use a three letter file extension, usually as a result of they were created on a computer system limited to 3 character file extentsions ( for example MS DOS ).
On the higher left, navigate to the situation where you may have the MIDI recordsdata that you want to convert. On this example, there's a MIDI folder within the Music library, and these are the files I want to convert. The record_ogg instance sketch turns your VS1053 breakout right into a recording device that generates OGG encoded information on the SD card in actual-time.
AAC's finest recognized use is as the default audio format of Apple's iPhone, iPod, iTunes, and the format used for all iTunes Retailer audio (with extensions for proprietary digital rights administration). You'll be able to inform the program what to do when the MIDI conversion is finished. Select a value within the When accomplished dropdown box. For example, you may want to have the computer go into hibernation when it is executed changing the files.
Do the impossible. After converting WAVE to MIDI, you can do issues that may be unimaginable with audio recordsdata, reminiscent of altering individual notes and swapping or muting particular person instruments. Midi recordsdata aren't like regular music recordsdata. They're not sampled, for one thing. So that they sound totally different on completely different gear and there is basically no direct strategy to convert them to a sampled file.
Choose File > Export Track as Audio File, choose either an AIFF or WAVE file (does not matter which), and click on the Export button in the Audio Export Settings window that seems. The default settings (forty four,one hundred Hz sampling price, sixteen bits, and dither) are effective.
Descargar merge wma online free click on over right here now: free wma merger into parliament wma merger free true You may then alter the bitrate to the desired worth .midi to .aac and also alter the quality too. The upper the setting, the better high quality sound, however the greater the file.
I am making an attempt to transform some midi recordsdata so I can file them on CD. (My supply is ) But after I drag they do not show up in the library. The iTunes set up page says to entry the Set Up Assistant to automatically convert my Windows Media files (where I also had the midi recordsdata as playlists) when installing however I might by no means discover the Assistant. I have midi2aac tried shifting the playlist information using Home windows and it appears they are in the iTunes library file, but they do not present up in the library at iTunes. In case you may also help I might recognize step-by-step directions. My display screen name says it all. Thanks in your help.
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prernirets ·±нУЪ 2020-3-6 18:13
Free Audio Converter from DVDVideoSoft allows you to convert audio information to different output ...

A powerful RTTTL ringtone composer and ringtone converter engaged on Home windows and Mac. It's worthwhile to add a LAME encoder for aac output, install Soundflower and declare it because the enter for Audacity. You may improve the volume all through the track, utilizing Audacity's effects menu, after which save IT. Once carried out, using the Sound preferences of the machine, swap again to the inbuilt audio system and you can listen to a version with increased volume, which is playable in iTunes 10.5.
MIDI actually consists of three distinctly completely different components - the bodily connector, the message format, and the storage format. The physical connector connects and transports data between devices; the message format (considered to be the most important a part of MIDI) controls the saved information and the connected gadgets; and the storage format shops all the info and knowledge.
Sadly, this dream has proved to be elusive. In the event you wished multi-instrument WAVE and different recordsdata to be transformed to MIDI, you merely had no various however to succumb to the usually tedious and time-consuming activity of picking out all of the notes your self, time that might be higher spent on more inventive endeavors.
How do I Free convert midi to aac pop over to this website : batch midi to aac converter free boy deliver miditoaac cell Convert and play APE on Android, Motorola, BlackBerry, LG, Samsung, Xbox 360, Microsoft Zune, PSP, PS3, Wii and more Free Audio Converter is exactly what is says it is, and it is a reliable and comparatively versatile tool for conversion of audio.
I'm annoyed, nevertheless, that 6.0.1 won't convert to MP3 on the fly anymore when burning; you must convert them manually in iTunes first. (It used to be automated.) But the capability is there, certainly. If the music recordsdata usually are not supported by iTunes, then you definitely cannot use the 'Convert' characteristic of this system.
Remove vocals. Helps take away vocals from stereophonic WAVE or other information for karaoke singing. Convert WAV or MP3, OGG, AAC, WMA etc stream audio file to MIDI file. MIDI can be used in additional participant. and likewise be utilized in extra games software program. MIDI file is very small.
The MIDI file was developed to permit both musicians and audio builders to switch MIDI knowledge from one software application to another. The MIDI file incorporates messages that specify notation, pitch, velocity and management alerts for quantity, vibrato, audio panning that synchronise tempo between multiple gadgets. Historically you would have needed four seperate keyboard devices, but now with MIDI information you may play a number of devices from a single controller.
Just a few products have been developed that will let you sing or play a single non-MIDI instrument, decide the notes you performed, and write them to a MIDI file or management another instrument. The catch here, of course, is that these products can solely convert songs containing a single instrument or played monophonically - one be aware at a time. That is fantastic should you sing solo or play a solo on an instrument such as a flute or horn.
Electronic gear and pc software have lengthy been available to report music in the form of a MIDI file so it may later be mechanically transformed into notation, played again using the sounds in your sound card or MIDI-enabled musical devices, edited in a sequencer, or used on Web pages as an area-saving various to audio recordsdata midi to aac. The catch is that the music needs to be entered by hand or "played in" on a MIDI-enabled instrument, so it's a must to know how one can play the tune as a way to create the MIDI file.
Ensemble Version: WAVE to MIDI converter incorporating Modern Music Methods' breakthrough a number of-instrument conversion expertise. IntelliScore Ensemble is the only product on the earth that can take heed to a musical audio file comprised of several different devices together with drums and convert it to a file containing the notes and drums performed, damaged down by instrument. It may midi2aac also convert a percussion recording comprised of several completely different drums to a multi-drum MIDI file, not merely discover the beats and set off a single drum as different merchandise do. For extra info, read the full Ensemble Version MP3 to Score Incessantly Asked Questions IntelliScore Ensemble also works on single-instrument music, played polyphonically or monophonically.
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Audio Converter digunakan untuk mengkonversi jenis file audio (seperti MP3, WAV, WMA, dll) ke jenis  ...

Convert your MP3 recordsdata on-line to MIDI format with out downloading any software program. The MIDI file was developed to permit each musicians and audio developers to switch MIDI data from one software application to another. The MIDI file comprises messages that specify notation, pitch, velocity and control signals for volume, vibrato, audio panning that synchronise tempo between multiple devices. Historically you'd have needed four seperate keyboard instruments, but now with MIDI files you possibly can play multiple instruments from a single controller.
Digital equipment and laptop software program have long been out there to file music in the form of a MIDI file so it might later be routinely converted into notation, played again utilizing the sounds in your sound card or MIDI-enabled musical devices, edited in a sequencer, or used on Web pages as a space-saving various to audio files. The catch is that the music needs to be entered by hand or "played in" on a MIDI-enabled instrument, so you must know tips on how to play the tune as a way to create the MIDI file.
Descargar merge wma online free click on over here now: free wma merger into parliament wma merger free true You'll be able to then alter the bitrate to the specified worth and also modify the standard too. The higher the setting, the higher high quality sound, but the bigger the file.
Compose MIDI music simply by singing or taking part in any instrument. Select the File > Convert > Create AAC Version menu command. Release your audio information ! Zamzar now has the flexibility to convert MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) files into a wide range of of different audio formats, together with MP3, AAC, WAV, FLAC and extra.
I am irritated, however, that 6.zero.1 will not convert to MP3 on the fly anymore when burning; you must convert them manually in iTunes first. (It was once computerized.) But the capability is there, actually. If the music recordsdata are usually not supported by iTunes, you then can't use the 'Convert' characteristic of the program.
Take away vocals. Helps remove vocals from stereophonic WAVE or different information for karaoke singing. Convert WAV or MP3, OGG, AAC, WMA and so on stream audio file to MIDI file. MIDI can be used in more participant. and likewise be used in more games software. MIDI file could be very small.
Next, in the Output area on the bottom of the window, you may set things like what the MIDI converter should do if the output file already exists, where to put the output, if you wish to protect the folder construction and whether or not to delete the supply information.
That you must use MP3 Toolkit to convert audio for mobile devices, make ringtones, repair tag information, rip Audio CD, report sound or merge audio objects to a complete MP3 file. Free Merge MP3 is a useful audio merging device that may easily combine, merge or be a part of MP3 data into one MP3 file to let you may have the power to manage your separated MP3 musical information larger. Make Preparation: Free obtain and arrange this extremely effective Audio Joiner in your Mac or Home windows, after which comply with the step-by-step data to combine audio recordsdata inside minutes. Nothing will be of as high degree as MP3 Cutter and Joiner that helps break and merge MP3 and WAV recordsdata very quickly. Audio Merger : MP3 Joiner App is Merger Few Songs or Ringtones and Share it along together with your Beloved As soon as.
MIDI truly consists of three distinctly totally different components - the bodily connector, the message format, and the storage format. The physical connector connects and transports data between gadgets; the message format (considered .midi to .aac to be a very powerful a part of MIDI) controls the saved knowledge and the linked devices; and the storage format shops all the data and data.
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is an industry-standard protocol defined in 1982 that allows electronic musical devices comparable to keyboard controllers, computers, and other digital gear to communicate, management, and synchronize with one another. MIDI allows computers, synthesizers, MIDI controllers, sound playing cards, samplers and drum machines to regulate one another, and to trade system information .midi to .aac (appearing as a uncooked knowledge encapsulation method for sysex instructions). MIDI does not transmit an audio signal or media. It transmits "event messages" such because the pitch and intensity of musical notes to play, control alerts for parameters resembling volume, vibrato and panning, cues, and clock signals to set the tempo. As an electronic protocol, it is notable for its widespread adoption all through the industry.
http://www.magicaudiotools.com/convert-midi-to-aac

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